The State Register of Civil Aviation Airfields and Heliports of the Russian Federation contains 259 facilities including 74 international airfields with open border crossing points.
The busiest airports of Russia by passenger traffic:
1) Sheremetyevo (Moscow) SVO/UUEE
2) Domodedovo (Moscow) DME/UUDD
3) Vnukovo (Moscow) VKO/UUWW
4) Pulkovo (Saint Petersburg) LED/ULLI
5) Simferopol (Simferopol) SIP/UKFF
6) Koltsovo (Yekaterinburg) SVX/USSS
7) Sochi (Sochi) AER/URSS
More than a half of all international and domestic passenger traffic is handled by 5 Russian airlines:
2) S7 Airlines
The largest operator of the railway network engaged in passenger transportation in Russia is Russian Railways Joint Stock Company. This type of transport is the most popular and most affordable for travelling within the country. The length of operated railways is 85.3 thousand kilometers. Russian Railways JSC is positioned in the world top three leading railroad companies.
Currently, most railway passengers in Russia travel on suburban and intraurban trains. In Russia, there are several dozens of suburban passenger companies, most of which are subsidiaries of Russian Railways JSC.
Intermodal passenger transportation between Moscow downtown and the three airports of the Moscow aviation hub (Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo and Vnukovo) is carried out by Aeroexpress LLC.
There is a regular train service to the countries in Europe and Asia:
1) Austria (Moscow-Vienna)
2) Bulgaria (Moscow-Sofia)
3) Hungary (Moscow-Budapest)
4) Germany (Moscow-Berlin)
5) China (Moscow-Beijing)
6) Poland (Moscow-Warsaw)
7) Finland (Moscow-Helsinki, Saint Petersburg-Helsinki)
8) France (Moscow-Paris, Moscow-Nice)
9) Czech Republic (Moscow-Prague, Saint Petersburg-Prague)
10) Estonia (Moscow-Tallinn)
Train tickets can be purchased on the official website of Russian Railways.
Urban ground transport in Russia includes buses, trams, trolleybuses, minibuses, and other vehicles. The bus is the most popular transport used by over 11 billion passengers a year, trams and trolleybuses are used by a significantly lesser number of passengers totaling an average of 2 billion passengers a year.
Municipal enterprises usually act as urban ground transport operators in urban areas.
Mosgortrans State Unitary Enterprise is the urban ground transport operator in Moscow.
There is a taxi service in all major Russian cities. Passenger taxis must have a permit (license) to carry passengers and baggage.
The largest online taxi booking services in Russia are
2) Gett Taxi
About 3.5 billion passengers annually use metro in Russia. There is a metro in seven cities:
The Moscow Metro is the fifth in the world in terms of passenger traffic after Beijing, Tokyo, Seoul, and Shanghai. Many stations of the Moscow Metro are considered as monuments of architecture.
The length of operated inland waterways in Russia is about 100 thousand kilometers. Maritime transport is mainly used for cargo transportation. River transport in Russia is mainly concentrated in the Volga-Kama basin. The main centers of traveling on inland waterways are Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara, where the major part of cruise fleet and tour operators who specialize in these form of tourist services is concentrated.
The leading river cruise companies are members of River Alliance.