Rostov Region was founded on September 13, 1937. With the territory area of 100 800 sq. km it is populated by 4 241 800 citizens. Rostov Region is a subject of the Russian Federation and is a part of the Southern Federal District. It borders with Volgograd Region in the east, Voronezh Region in the north, the Republic of Kalmykia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai in the south and the Ukraine in the west.
The capital city is Rostov-on-Don populated by 1 049 000 citizens. Rostov-on-Don is 963 km far from Moscow and is in the same time zone.
The climate is moderately continental and arid. Winters are mild with January average —9 C in the north and —5C in the south. Summers are hot and dry with July average +22+24C. Natural zone is typical of steppe.
Rostov Region welcomes to visit its resort climate area «The Taganrog Bay» with a multitude of health resorts. Among them the Manych and the Veshenskiy health resorts. In Kamenka settlement in Rostov-on-Don suburbs you would find the Rostovsky health resort and other health and recreation facilities. The arid and hot climate is good for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Therapeutic natural resources of the Region are based on mineral waters and therapeutic muds. There is a deposit of those in Rostov-on-Don that is used for balneotherapeutic purposes. Significant deposits of sulphide silt peloids (Manych-Gruzskoe, Veselovskoye and Tuzlovskoye) make a good perspective for therapeutic applications.
Lake Manych-Gudilo is the largest lake in Rostov Region. It is relic and of tectonic origin, being a so-called saucer-lake. It is 150 km long and reaches 10-15 km in width, being 4 and more meters deep. The Manych-Gudilo lake with its twice higher water saltiness than that of the Black Sea is one of the largest lakes in Europe. It’s the habitat for small and southern smelt, stickleback and pipe fish that are probably the only species that could survive in this salty water. There is an island called Vodny in the center of the lake. It is known for a herd of wild Don horses that have lived there for over 50 years. These free horses are one of attractions of the Rostovsky State Nature Reserve.
The Azov Sea shore has always been a favourite holiday resort area for a multitude of people and the most available place for valuable family recreation. The Azov Sea attracts its guests with the clean air, the unique landscape, lakes with therapeutic salts and peloids, blue bays and estuaries, the mild climate and wide beaches covered with tiny coquina. Richness and generosity of the Azov Sea deserve specific mentioning. The ancient Greeks used to call the sea «Maetida», which means a «fosterer». The Scythians named it «Kargulak» («rich with fish»), the Meots — «Timirinda» («sea mother»). Steady and moderate sun rays enable taking sun baths in any variations. And golden sand beaches of the Azov Sea shore are great for sand baths. The whole complex of these therapeutic features of the Azov Sea effectively improves heat regulation and metabolic processes and enhances general body vigour.
Another city of the Region — Azov is famous for its Powder Cellar built in 1799. This is the only monument of the Katherine the Great epoch fortress architecture traditions throughout the whole southern region of Russia (Rostov and Taganrog fortresses have been completely demolished). Hence, the Powder Cellar truly deserves its status of a monument of military engineering of the late XVIII century. Here you could also see a death mask of Peter the Great made by Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli in 1725, as well as a medal in commemoration of Azov liberation from the Turks and Russian fleet construction.
The Azov History, Archaeology and Paleontology Museum-Reserve stores and exhibits large archaeological collections, including over 16 000 items of the Scythian-Sarmatian period (6 cent. B.C. — IV cent. A.D.); the Neolithic and the Bronze Age exhibits (4 — 2 cent. B.C.), as well as the Golden Horde epoch artifacts (XIII — XV centuries); photographic and written documents; collections of numismatics, handicraft, garments and cloth of the XIX century; a collection of samovars and brass items (the richest collection in southern Russia).
The largest paleontological collection in the North Caucasus (exceeds 1500 items) would attract attention of specialists and anyone interested in antiquities and fossils. The most popular exhibit of the museum is the Trogonterian elephant skeleton, which is the only one in the country and is 600 000 years old. There are only a few Trogonterian elephant skeletons found in the World. The Azov skeleton is one of the largest assembled skeletons of this elephant in the World and is the only one with a skull of this type. Another unique exhibit of the collection is the Deinotherium elephant skeleton that is 5 million years old. The museum collection traveled to France, Switzerland, Scotland and Japan.
A small town of Askai has a unique system of underground passages. Early catacombs dug for cult purposes by the ancient Kobyakovo settlement dwellers in the beginning of the 1st millennium have been diligently surrounded by following generations with a new network of labyrinths. As a result modern Aksai with its outskirts stands on a true underground city, which is sure to attract keen cavers.
In every town of the Don region you would find local studies museums and museums dedicated to the history of the Don Cossacks. The exhibition of traditional clothes «Donskoy Costume» in Gukovo settlement would give you a comprehensive idea of the traditional costume of southern Russia transfiguration within the early XVIII — mid XX centuries. Here you would see garments worn for celebrations, evening and everyday ware, outdoor and seasonal clothes. A visitor would see territorial differences in a Don Cossack costume. Cossacks of the upper Don villages used to wear modest clothes represented by a costume of a Cossack girl from Nekrasovka village. At the same time garments of the lower Don region Cossacks would strike you with its uniqueness, being a peculiar blend of Russian, Ukrainian, Tatar, Kalmyk, Turk and Cherkess elements.
For more detailed information on the Region, please refer to Internet resources of governmental authorities of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation.