Republic of Crimea
The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of the Russian Federation. It is located on the Crimean Peninsula. On March 18, 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a treaty of accession with Crimean and Sevastopolian leaders, which specified that Crimea and Sevastopol would join the Russian Federation as separate political entities.
The capital of the Republic of Crimea is Simferopol.
Covering an area of 27,000 km2, Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea and on the western coast of the Sea of Azov, bordering Ukraine's Kherson Oblast from the north. The Crimean peninsula comprises many smaller peninsulas, such as the mentioned Kerch peninsula, Heracles Peninsula, Tarhankut Peninsula and many others. Crimea also possesses lots of headlands such as Cape Priboiny, Cape Tarkhankut, Sarych, Cape Fonar, Kazantyp, Cape Akburun, and many others.
The development of Crimea as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The development of the transport networks brought masses of tourists from central parts of the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, a major development of palaces, villas, and dachas began—most of which remain. These are some of the main attractions of Crimea as a tourist destination.
A new phase of tourist development began when the Soviet government realized the potential of the healing quality of the local air, lakes and therapeutic muds. It became a «health» destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. In the 1990s, Crimea became more of a get-away destination than a «health-improvement» destination.
The most visited areas are the south shore of Crimea with cities of Yalta and Alushta, the western shore — Eupatoria and Saki, and the south-eastern shore — Feodosia and Sudak. There are many Crimean legends about famous touristic places, which attract the attention of tourists.
The south coast of the Crimea
- The Funa Fortress ruins below the Demerdzhi mountain near Alushta;
- The Alustone Fortress in the centre of Alushta;
- Remains of Christian basilica in Partenit, remains of medieval fortifications and constructions on the Ayu-Dag mountain;
- A part of the Genoese fortress' wall in Hurzuf;
- Remains of Roman fortifications of the 1 century (Charax) on the Cape Ay Todor (the «Dnieper» sanatorium near the Swallow's nest).
- The Church of All Crimean Saints and St. Theodore Stratilat 1842 (Alushta);
- The Palace of Princess Gagarina 1907 with a park (Utes settlement ), Alushta;
- The residence of General Rayevsky 1887 with a park (Utes settlement , Karasan);
- The Church of John Chrysostom 1837 — it was reconstructed after the War (the first church of Yalta);
- Yalta Old Town — Yekaterinynskaya str.;
- Alexander Nevsky Cathedral 1902, (2 Sadovaya str.Yalta);
- Armenian Church of St. Hripsime 1909-1917 (3 Zagorodnaya Str. Yalta);
- The Emir`s of Bukhara Palace (the «Uzbekistan» sanatorium, Yalta);
- The Livadia Palace Nicolas II (1911) with a park (west of Yalta);
- The Massandra Palace Alexander III (1902);
- The Kichkine palace with the park Chair (1908-1911) (Livadia-Gaspra);
- The «Swallow's nest» restaurant (Gaspra);
- Palace of the Countess Panina (Gaspra);
- The Yusupov Palace (Koreiz);
- The Vorontsov Palace 1846 with a park (Alupka);
- Church of Ascension of Christ 1892 (Foros).
- Utes (XIX century);
- Karasan (XIX century);
- The park of Hursuf's military sanatorium;
- Nikytsky botanic garden;
- Chair Park (The Kichkine palace in Gaspra);
- Massandrovsky Park;
- Miskhorsky park;
- Nizhnyaya Oreanda park;
- Melas park;
- Forossky park;
- Vorontsov park (Alupka);
- Kharaksky park (Gaspra).
- The valley of ghosts on the Demerdzhi mountain (Alushta);
- Waterfall Jur-Jur (Generalskoye settlement near Alushta);
- Waterfall Golovinsky (near Alushta);
- Cape Plaka (Utes settlement );
- Ayu-Dag mountain (Partenit settlement , Hurzuf);
- Red Stone rock (Hurzuf);
- Waterfall Uchan-Su (near Yalta);
- Karagol mountain lake;
- Ai-Petri mountain;
- Cat mountain, Rock Diva (Simeiz);
- Kastropolskaya wall (Berehovoe);
- Baydar Gate (Foros);
- Crimean natural reserve;
- Yalta mountain-forest nature reserve;
- Cape Martyan Reserve (Nikita Botanic Garden).
- Water parks in Alushta and Simeiz;
- Sts. Cosmas and Damian Monastery (in mountains near Alushta);
- Dolphinarium in Partenit;
- Cable road Miskhor- Ai-Petri;
- «Tsar's path» (Gaspra-Livadia);
- Glade of Fairy tales (Yalta);
- Yalta Zoo;
- House and Museum of house-spirits;
- Water area of Yalta;
- Nature Museum and the Arboretum and Zoo Park (Alushta);
- Massandra winery;
- Wine Institute Magarach;
- Houses and Museums of writers S. Sergeyev-Tsensky (Alushta), A. Chekhov (Yalta, Hurzuf), Lesya Ukrainka (Yalta), N. Biryukov; (Yalta), I.S. Shmelyov (Alushta);
- House of Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu (Hurzuf);
- House and Museum of the Academician of Architecture A.N. Beketov (Alushta).
The south-west Crimea
- Remains of Tauric Chersonese an ancient and medieval city in Sevastopol;
- Towers and remains of the Chimbolo Fortress XV century (Balaklava near Sevastopol);
- Remains of the Kalamita Fortress and the Inkerman Cave Monastery;
- Cave cities or fortresses:
Ruins of fortresses of 13-15 centuries: Mangul, Suirenskaya, Eski-Kermen, Kyz-Kermen, Tepe-Kermen, Chufut-Kaleh, Bakla; monasteries: Chelter, Shuldan, Chelter-Koba (between Sevastopol and Bakhchysarai), Kachi-Kalyon (near Bakhchysarai);
- Khan's palace of 16-18 century in Bakhchysarai.
- Vladimirsky Cathedral in Sevastopol;
- Bakhchysarai: Takhta-Djami mosque 1707; Hacı and Meñli Geray Mausoleum 1501, Zyndzyrly-medrese of 15 century, Eski-Dyurbe mausoleum (14-15 centuries).
- Chernorechensky Canyon (between Sevastopol and Foros);
- «Karalezsky Sphinxes» (Kuibyshevo settlement );
- Grand Canyon of Crimea, waterfall Silver (Bakhchysarai region);
- Crimean natural reserve;
- Dolphinarium in Sevastopol;
- Bay, quay and underground submarine base with museum in Balaklava;
- Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (Nauchny);
- Great number of memorials dedicated to people killed in The Crimean War and The Great Patriotic War.
The south-east Crimea
- Genoese Fortress of 14-15 centuries in Sudak — walls and fifteen towers have survived;
- Remains of fortresses farther west of Sudak: Assandra, Kutlakskaya, Chaban-Kale Towers;
- Remains of Genoese Fortress in Feodosia: parts of the wall and three towers have survived; there are several Armenian churches;
- Monasteries in the area of Old Crimea — Toplovsky, Surb Khach 1338;
- Khan Uzbek Mosque 1314 in Madrasa of 14 century; Mosque Kurshun-Jami of X-XII centuries (Old Crimea).
- Series of churches in Feodosia including Surb Sarkis 1363.
- Novyy Svet: bays, juniper grove, Novy Svet Winery, the path and the grotto of Golitsyn;
- Koktebel: Kara Dag mountain range, dolphinarium;
- Water parks in Sudak and Koktebel;
- National Picture Gallery named after I.K.Aivazovsky in Feodosia;
- Pushkin grotto (Feodosia);
- Museum of Vera Mukhina;
- Hand gliding museum.
- Excavation of Panticapaeum the capital of The Bosporan Kingdom on the Mithridat mountain;
- Melek-Chesmen Mound;
- Yeni-Kale fortress;
- Adzhimushkay Quarry Museum;
- Kerch Fortress (Fort Totleben);
- Ostrich farm in Podmayachny settlement ;
- Chokrak Salt Lake with therapeutic mud;
- Mud volcanoes valley;
- Kerch historical and archaeological museum;
- Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist;
- Excavation of Sites of ancient settlements Nimphei and Tiritaka;
- Demetra's Crypt;
- Royal Kurgan;
- Golden pantry.